CONSTRUCTION SITE SETUP PLANS

Construction site setup

A suitable construction site setup is a crucial part of any construction project. Before starting the execution work, the site is to make ready for kick-start of the project. Without proper site infrastructure, the site cannot perform better. So, it's the first and foremost duty of a project manager is to make a suitable site infrastructure setup for the project. If the site is bigger, it needs more attention for infrastructure setup. It's very important for the smooth progress of the work. A blueprint is needed for preparation of site infrastructure layout. This can be done with the help of the main architectural drawing and find out the possible locations and spaces where the units have to be put. These units should serve their purpose throughout the project life. So, putting the units in proper location is a very crucial task. A proper site setup helps to run the execution work smoothly and timely.

Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has launched a green building rating system to address the National Priorities. This rating system enables the site to apply green concepts and reduce environmental impacts that are measurable. The green concepts and techniques address the National issues like water efficiency, reduction in fossil fuel use in commuting, handling of consumers waste and conserving natural resources to enhance occupant health, happiness and well-being. Now most of the building projects try to opt for the IGBC certification and award. The following site setups are essential for a right building project to get the IGBC certification.

Construction site setup

1. WATER
Construction site needs water for drinking and construction purposes. The requirement of water depends on the size of the project and the numbers of manpower. So, its need to calculate first, how much water is required per day in the site then go for the arrangement. Minimum two sources of water should be arranged. For bigger site, the sources of water should be more. The necessary prior permission for water connection is to be taken from concerned authorities. If bore well is to do, the location of bore well should be such that it can be used for the entire project life. A testing is mandatory to check the quality of water, whether it is suitable for drinking and construction purposes or not. To minimize wastage of water pumps should be automated, A system to harvest rainwater and it's reusing is to be implemented. it helps to get the IGBC certification.

Construction site setup

2. POWER
Electrical power is the heart of any project. Disturbed power supply causes idle manpower and machinery, thus lead to project delay. So, it needs to ensure the continued power supply. Total electric power consumption is to be determined by deciding how many plants, machinery, and equipment will run by electric power. The other electrical gadget's power consumption like fans, bulbs, air-conditioner, halide lamps, cutters, welding machine etc. should also be included in the power requirement. Then, the necessary permission has to be taken from the power supply agency before the commencement of the site activity. As an alternate source of power, one or two D.G Set of same capacity should be arranged to provide uninterrupted power supply. Low power consuming updated electrical equipment and gadgets helps to conserve power. If possible, uses of renewable energy sources like solar power will make the site eco-friendlier.

Construction site setup

3. SITE ILLUMINATION
Site lighting improves overall safety to workers and site visitors. It can also be an effective form of deterrent for trespassers. Lighting can be used internally for general movement and working on the site itself, externally for illuminating entry, storage and circulation areas etc. It is necessary to draw down a lighting plan for the site. To develop plan by architectural drawing, locate the working areas, equipment, plants, and vehicle & workers movements. Provide sufficient light towers in those areas. In buildings, each staircase is to be illuminated properly during the daytime also. Most workers and visitors use stairs. Nowadays, Metal halide and LED lights are most popular as it consumes relatively low power and is cost effective.

Construction site setup

4. SITE CLEANING
Prior to start any work clean the site from vegetation like grass, bushes, weeds, and unwanted materials. Do not cut big trees. It needs permission. Cutting trees does not support the green building concepts. Try to preserve it. If necessary it can be shifted. Demolish old structures and sort out usable materials for reuse or sale. Unusable materials remove from the site. The site needs clear visibility from all fronts, it helps the field survey work and other activity.

Construction site setup

5. SITE BARRICADE / SITE FENCING
Barricade the site by poles and corrugated sheets or by poles and barbed wire. Site protection is necessary to restrict unauthorized entry as well as pilferage of materials and construction equipment. Cattle and other animals can damage materials and equipment.They also cause health and safety risk to the worker.


Construction site setup
6. SITE OFFICE
Initially, for a site office portacabin can be used. The permanent office should be made after deciding the stuff strength and other office setups. Stuff's welfare should keep in mind. Site office should be located near the main entrance on elevated ground so that the entire site can be visible at a glance as far as possible. It helps to monitor the site activity, visitors, movements of machinery and materials etc. Generally, in a building project the site office is shifted to any building's first or second floor when the structure is complete. It also saves cost for a separate office building.

Construction site setup

7. STORE
The store should be located just behind the site office. If the site office is on the first or second floor of a building, the store should be just below the ground floor of  the site office. It facilitates delivery of the materials and close supervision of the store. The size of the store to be decided as per the volume of the materials to be stored. A workshop for a joiner, fitter and electrician should be located just beside the store for balancing easy and short access to the store. Cement store should be separate.


Construction site setup

8. LABORS CAMP
Labors camp should be made nearest to the site. It should be concentrated in one place to promote communication and to reduce the cost of facilities and services. If labors camp is to build within the site, it should be in a noise-free zone and no activity area. Otherwise, frequent shifting of labors camp may delay the progress. The size of the camp obviously depends on the number of labors. Camps having better facilities helps to retain the labors at the site.

Construction site setup
9. LABOR'S TOILET
Sufficient numbers of toilet needs nearest to the labor camp. There should be one toilet for 5-6 labors. To maintain health and hygiene toilets should be cleaned every week.  Nowadays, portable toilets and septic tanks are available in the market. One can think about it. These are economical, easy to install and easy to shift. It saves time for construction.

Construction site setup

10. SITE ENTRANCE
There should be at least two main entrance in a site. Better in opposite boundary. One for entry and other for exit. It should be located closer to the external road. The width of the main gate should be minimum 5 meters (16 feet) so that loaded vehicles can easily enter into the site. Main entrance to be provided with an iron gate and a drop gate with lock and key arrangement.

11. INTERNAL ROAD
An internal road at least 4 meter(12 feet) wide is required in the site for movement of loaded vehicles, crane, machinery etc. A WBM road which can withstand a load of minimum 60 metric ton or more should be constructed.It will be cost saving if the temporary WBM road is converted into the permanent road of the project. So, try to match it with the planned internal road as shown in the architectural drawing. It will save materials and reduce wastage.

12. SITE SECURITY
To protect and secure the site from external hazards and safe guard the materials, equipment and workers, a strong security system is required in any construction site. A security room at each main gate with sufficient security personnel to be provided. Security personnel to be appointed at every sensitive zone of the site for round the clock. Numbers of security guard required may depend on the size and sensitivity of the project. Nowadays protective devices like CCTV and alarms are used along with security guards. At least two close circuit cameras need to be fixed at each main gate and other sensitive zones to cover 360-degree view. CCTV's to be monitored from the security room and the site office.

13. MATERIALS STACK YARD
Transporting materials from distant delays the progress. Building materials like stone aggregates, sand, bricks etc. should be stacked nearest to the activity area in the site. It saves time and manpower. So, locate the stack yards closer to the activity area, and prepare a hard and solid base to stack materials, it will minimize wastage. It should be easily accessible by vehicles and cart through internal roads.
Construction site setup

14. SCRAP STACK YARD
Scrap bins need to be made separately for different materials like paper scrap, wood scrap, glass scrap, plastic scrap, tiles scrap, marble or granite scrap, iron scrap, reinforcement scrap etc. It can be in one place or different, depending upon the space availability at the site and its easy removal. Bins size should be large enough depending on the volume of waste. Each bin is to be marked with proper signage to avoid mixing of scraps. Scrap has to be removed periodically to maintain health and safety. To deal with the kitchen waste from canteen and labor camp, a separate bin is better. The garbage collected in the bin should be removed regularly. Alternately, kitchen waste can be used to make compost fertilizer for gardening.

Construction site setup
15. SITE CANTEEN
A canteen is a must for stuff and labor welfare. If the site is in a remote area, it becomes more vital. It helps the site stuff and labors to get a little break and refresh. It energized them. Cigarettes, wine, and other toxic goods should be strictly prohibited in the canteen.

Construction site setup

16. SAFETY ROOM
A well ventilated clean hygienic room can be used as a safety room. It should be at least 150 - 200 square feet in area and provided with one or two hospital bed, all necessary first-aid equipment, first-aid kit, and necessary medicines. Periodic visit of a doctor for health check-up of labors and stuff is a must. A well-trained safety supervisor is to be appointed to look after the safety room.


Construction site setup
17. SAFETY SIGNAGE
To maintain site safety, safety signage plays very important roles. Signage like "WORK IN PROGRESS", "HARD HAT AREA", "DANGER AHEAD", "PROTECTED AREA", "EXCAVATION IS IN PROGRESS", "HIGH VOLTAGE ZONE", "DANGER", "STOP" etc. and some safety slogans like "THINK SAFE,WORK SAFE, BE SAFE", "SAFETY STARTS WITH YOU", "SAFETY IS GAINFUL, ACCIDENT IS PAINFUL" and so on are popular. There are lots of safety signage and slogans. These are written on a hard sheet with dark color oil paint like black, green and red on white or yellow background with big fonts so that it can be easily readable from 30 meters distance. The signage has to put in front of the main entrances, fences and appropriate locations in the site. A signage with detail to introduce the site safety rules and regulations and process during the emergency should be fixed at the main gates. Provide a company board outside the premises, giving details about the company name, address and current phone numbers etc. Project details with the project's name, client's name, Architect and consultant's name should be put outside the entrance. All signage should be properly illuminated during the night.

Construction site setup

18. TELEPHONE AND INTERNET CONNECTION
Nowadays all communications are done through email, Whatsapp and phone. Supply of updated drawings, specifications, contracts, and other documentation are done faster through email. It is safe and authentic. All site decisions are shared among the site staff via Whatsapp group. So, internet and phone line to be installed earlier from the service provider.








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Green Environment

Hi, I’m Gobinda Burman (Green Environment). More than 27 years in the field of Building Construction industry, I’ve completed many high-rise building projects successfully. I have got the opportunity to learn and solve the critical practical problems related to building construction. I love to share my knowledge with those people who wants to build their own home and the budding civil engineers willing to build their career in this field..

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